Giản đồ Venn trong COPD

algorithm
This nonproportional Venn diagram shows subsets of patients with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma (black circles). The subsets defined as COPD are shaded gray. Subset areas are not proportional to actual relative subset sizes. Asthma is, by definition, associated with reversible airflow obstruction; in variant asthma special maneuvers may be necessary to make the obstruction evident. Patients with asthma whose airflow obstruction is completely reversible (subset 9) are not considered to have COPD. In many cases it is virtually impossible to differentiate patients with asthma whose airflow obstruction does not remit completely from persons with chronic bronchitis and emphysema who have partially reversible airflow obstruction with airway hyperreactivity. Thus, patients with unremitting asthma are classified as having COPD (subsets 6, 7 and 8). Chronic bronchitis and emphysema with airflow obstruction usually occur together (subset 5), and some patients may have asthma associated with these two disorders (subset 8). Individuals with asthma exposed to chronic irritation, as from cigarette smoke, may develop chronic productive cough, a feature of chronic bronchitis (subset 6). Such patients are often referred to in the United States as having asthmatic bronchitis or the asthmatic form of COPD. Persons with chronic bronchitis or emphysema without airflow obstruction (subsets 1, 2 and 11) are not classified as having COPD. In order to emphasize that cough and sputum are abnormal, individuals with these symptoms and normal lung function were classified as GOLD Stage 0, at risk, in the original GOLD classification [1]. This stage was deleted in the 2006 revision because of uncertainties about whether it is progressive [2]. Patients with airway obstruction due to diseases with known etiology or specific pathology, such as cystic fibrosis or obliterative bronchiolitis (subset 10), are not generally included in the definition of COPD.
1. Data from: Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD). Workshop report: Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Update 2005.
2. Data from: Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD). Workshop report: Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Update 2006.

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